In 1913, in the Coyoacán district of Mexico City, the 6-year old Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón contracted poliomyelitis, enduring a convalescence of 9 months. About 8500 people across the USA were to die as a result of the polio epidemics that raged between 1913 and 1916. Although the child was lucky to have survived, she contracted paralytic poliomyelitis, as a result of which the muscles of her right leg lost their function. Her limb became emaciated and the foot stunted, and as she grew, its failure to develop led to an imbalance in her pelvis and a curvature of her spine. The child’s solution of trousers, floor-length skirts, or multiple pairs of socks may not have quelled school-yard taunts, but she prevailed academically. Aged 15 years, and one of only 35 girls out of 2000 students, she was accepted to the prestigious Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, after which her plan was to study medicine.
Collective Creativity offers an analysis of the explosion of artistic creativity currently taking place on the South Pacific island of Rarotonga. By exploring the construction of this art-world through the ways in which creativity and innovation are linked to social structures and social networks, this book investigates the social aspects of making fine art in order to present a ’collective’ theory of creativity. With a close examination of tourism, galleries and, of course, the artists themselves, Katherine Giuffre presents a detailed picture of a complex and multi-faceted community through the words of the art-world participants themselves. Theoretically sophisticated, yet grounded with rich empirical data, this book will appeal not only to anthropologists with an interest in the South Pacific, but also to scholars concerned with questions of ethnicity, creativity, globalization and network analysis.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9– 11-year-old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a test measuring a participant’s ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17%) when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9– 11-year-olds.
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